The Transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste

A Systematic Basis for Planning and Management at the National, Regional, and Community Levels

Prepared By
Planning Information Corporation
Denver, Colorado
September, 1996

19.   The National Shipment Campaign: Annual Shipments

What are the annual impacts of the national shipment campaign for the nation's network of major railroads and highways? Do the impacts vary from year 1 to year 2, or 3, for example, or from year 1 to year 10 to year 20? These questions are relevant to the planning and management of a national shipment campaign. For example, DOE's May 28, 1996 notice regarding the acquisition of transportation services indicates (pg. 1) that "Initially, spent-fuel delivered to the Federal site would be canistered. . .but at some point*. . . the contractor may be required to handle uncanistered spent-fuel." What modifications in the oldest-fuel-first prioritization for spent fuel acceptance and pickup (see Section 5) would be necessary to limit pickup to canistered fuel in the first two acceptance years?

Another concern is the preparedness of state, local, and tribal officials to manage risk and respond to emergencies associated with SNF and HLW shipments. Compounding this concern is the current Congressional intent to accelerate the first shipments of SNF and HLW, perhaps as early as 1998 or 1999. Further complicating the planning process are the initiatives to privatize the transportation process, through a series of contracts with regional servicing agents (RSAs). Finally, many analysts share the belief that the number of shipments should be reduced by using higher-volume rail and truck containers that are yet to be developed or licensed, and by improvements to waste-handling infrastructure that could be expensive to complete.

The scenarios developed for this assessment reveal significant differences between the overall campaign and its initial shipment years. In the current capabilities scenario, for example, about 35 percent of the MTU would be shipped by truck, a percentage which increases to 66 percent in the initial three shipment years. In the MPC base case scenario of transportation choices, about 11 percent of total MTU would be shipped by truck, a percentage which increases to 27 percent in the initial three shipment years容ven more if improvements in loading capacity and/or near-site infrastructure were not implemented with casks available for the startup of the shipment campaign.

Figures 19-1, 19-2 and 19-3 present origin sites and affected rail and highway routes (default routing) under the current capabilities scenario of transportation choices in years 1, 2, and 3 of the prospective shipment campaign. While it is possible that the special arrangements and improvements implied by the MPC base case and maximum rail scenarios could be implemented by year 1, it can also be argued that the current capabilities are likely to be operative in the initial years, regardless of the strategy for the overall shipment campaign.

Figures 19-4 and 19-5 present origin sites and affected rail and highway routes (default routing) in year 20 of the prospective shipment campaign擁n this case comparing affected routes and cask shipments under the current capabilities and maximum rail scenarios of transportation choices. Year 1 Routes and Cask Shipments

  *   RSA Phase C contract years 3-5 (see "Timing of RSA Phases": VU-Graph Presentations for July 9, 1996 Presolicitation Conference, ref 2).


Year 1 Routes and Cask Shipment

Figure 19-1 shows the likely pattern of shipments comprising the 1,200 MTU first-year requirement of S. 1936, assuming the oldest-fuel-first priority acceptance ranking described above. The default routing is essentially unconstrained, as might be developed by an RSA or by DOE contract carriers. Shipments would be made from 8 sites with rail access and 20 sites with truck-only access:

Rail Shipments  Truck Shipments
----------------------------- ------- ----------------------------- -------
Origin Casks Origin Casks
         
CA: San Onofre 2 CA: Humboldt Bay 87
CT: Millstone 12 CT: Haddam Neck 131
IL: Quad Cities 7 FL: Turkey Point 90
NC: Brunswick 14 ID: INEL 6
NC: McGuire 2 IL: Braidwood 9
ME: Maine Yankee 11 IL: Dresden 344
NY: Nine Mile Point 15 IL: Morris 755
SC: Robinson 1 MA: Pilgrim 10
MA: Yankee Rowe 73
TOTAL 64 MI: Big Rock Point 9
MN: Monticello 12
NE: Ft. Calhoun 25
NJ: Oyster Creek 246
NY: Ginna 118
NY: Indian Point 160
NY: West Valley 83
SC: Oconee 35
VA: Surry 44
VT: Vermont Yankee 189
WI: LaCrosse 28
WI: Point Beach 151
TOTAL 2,605



Figure 19-1. Year 1 Cask Shipments by Route and Origin
Current Capabilities Transportation Choices/Default Routing


Rail Routes
fig19-1a

Highway Routes
fig19-1b


Year 2 Routes and Cask Shipments

In the second year, the shipment schedule shows an increased number of shipment origin sites (13 railroad, 24 truck), as shown in Figure 19-2. The weight of SNF is the same as in year 2 (at least 1,200 MTU) and the number of casks is somewhat lower than year 1:

Rail Shipments  Truck Shipments
----------------------------- ------- ----------------------------- -------
Origin Casks   Origin Casks
         
AR: Arkansas Nuclear 5   CA: Humboldt Bay 109
CA: San Onofre 2   CT: Haddam Neck 101
CT: Millstone 13   FL: Turkey Point 95
GA: Hatch 1   ID: INEL 17
IA: Duane Arnold 8   IL: Braidwood 11
IL: Quad Cities 21   IL: Dresden 184
IL: Zion 9   IL: Morris 235
MN: Prairie Island 6   MA: Pilgrim 66
NC: Brunswick 10   MA: Yankee Rowe 40
NC: McGuire 9   MD: Calvert Cliffs 32
NY: Nine Mile Point 18   MI: Big Rock Point 11
PA: Three Mile Island 3   MI: Cook 63
SC: Robinson 1   MI: Palisades 205
    MN: Monticello 13
TOTAL 106   NE: Ft. Calhoun 36
      NJ: Oyster Creek 28
      NY: Ginna 37
      NY: Indian Point 72
      PA: Peach Bottom 187
      SC: Oconee 26
      VA: Surry 226
      WI: Kewaunee 56
      WI: LaCrosse 13
      WI: Point Beach 119
       
      TOTAL 1,982



Figure 19-2. Year 1 Cask Shipments by Route and Origin
Current Capabilities Transportation Choices/Default Routing


Rail Routes
fig19-2a

Highway Routes
fig19-2b


Year 3 Routes and Cask Shipments

In year three, the volume of shipment increases from 1,200 to 2,000 MTU, increasing both the number of casks and the number of shipment sites (18 rail and 27 truck), as shown in Figure 19-3. However, we still assume the current capabilities scenario and unconstrained routing.

Rail Shipments  Truck Shipments
----------------------------- ------- ----------------------------- -------
Origin Casks   Origin Casks
         
AL: Farley 3   AL: Browns Ferry 165
AR: Arkansas Nuclear 6   CT: Haddam Neck 100
CA: Rancho Seco 7   FL: Crystal River 2
CA: San Onofre 2   FL: St. Lucie 52
CT: Millstone 22   FL: Turkey Point 151
GA: Hatch 1   ID: INEL 31
IA: Duane Arnold 6   IL: Braidwood 23
IL: Quad Cities 27   IL: Dresden 451
IL: Zion 17   IL: Morris 68
ME: Maine Yankee 10   MA: Pilgrim 214
MN: Prairie Island 6   MA: Yankee Rowe 76
NC: Brunswick 17   MD: Calvert Cliffs 184
NC: Harris 6   MI: Big Rock Point 23
NC: McGuire 16   MI: Cook 64
NY: Nine Mile Point 8   MI: Palisades 68
OR: Trojan 1   NE: Ft. Calhoun 96
PA: Three Mile Island 15   NJ: Oyster Creek 148
SC: Robinson 1   NY: FitzPatrick 134
    NY: Ginna 122
TOTAL 171   NY: Indian Point 124
      PA: Peach Bottom 342
      SC: Oconee 215
      VA: Surry 165
      VT: Vermont Yankee 109
      WI: Kewaunee 41
      WI: LaCrosse 16
      WI: Point Beach 125
       
      TOTAL 3,309



Figure 19-3. Year 3 Cask Shipments by Route and Origin
Current Capabilities Transportation Choices/Default Routing


Rail Routes
fig19-3a

Highway Routes
fig19-3b

Year 20 Routes and Cask Shipments

After several years, it is possible that the utilities and RSAs (or DOE) would implement changes in containers and transportation infrastructure to improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of shipments. Figures 19-4 and 19-5 compare the current capabilities (CCP) and the maximum rail (MXR) scenarios in year 20 of the transportation program postulated in this analysis. Under the CCP scenario, rail shipments would be made from 37 sites and truck shipments from 27 sites; under the MXR scenario, 62 of 64 sites would be rail-capable. Modes are indicated as T1 and T2 for legal weight one- or two- assembly containers, or R75 and R125 for the small and large rail containers.

  CCP Scenario   MXR Scenario
Origin Mode Casks       Mode Casks
           
AL: Browns Ferry T2 112   R125 6
AL: Farley R125 6   R125 6
AR: Arkansas Nuc. R75 11   R125 7
AZ: Palo Verde R125 10   R125 10
CA: Diablo Canyon T1 213   R125 11
CA: San Onofre R125 5   R125 5
CT: Haddam Neck T1 41   R75 4
FL: Crystal River T1 66   R75 6
FL: St. Lucie T1 139   R125 8
FL: Turkey Point T1 88   R125 5
GA: Hatch R125 10   R125 10
GA: Vogtle R75 14   R75 14
IA: Duane Arnold R75 6   R125 3
IL: Braidwood R75 15   R125 9
IL: Byron R75 20   R125 12
IL: Dresden T2 439   R75 43
IL: La Salle R75 19   R125 10
IL: Quad Cities R75 15   R75 15
IL: Zion R75 6   R125 4
KS: Wolf Creek R125 4   R125 4
LA: River Bend R125 5   R125 5
LA: Waterford R125 5   R125 5
MA: Pilgrim T2 74   R75 8
MD: Calvert Cliffs T1 81   R125 4
ME: Maine Yankee R125 3   R125 3
MI: Cook T1 148   R125 8
MI: Fermi T2 97   R125 5
MI: Palisades T1 56   R125 3
MN: Monticello T2 68   R75 7
MN: Prairie Island R125 3   R125 3
MS: Grand Gulf T2 140   R125 7
NC: Brunswick R125 15   R125 15
NC: Harris R75 4   R125 3
NC: McGuire R75 20   R125 7
NE: Ft. Calhoun T1 43   R75 4
NH: Seabrook R125 4   R125 4
NJ: Hope Creek T2 15   R125 7
NJ: Oyster Creek T2 89   R125 5
NJ: Salem T1 137   R125 8
NY: FitzPatrick T2 100   R125 5
NY: Ginna T1 38   T4 10
NY: Indian Point T1 139   T4 18
OH: Davis-Besse R125 3   R125 3
OH: Perry R125 7   R125 7
PA: Beaver Valley R75 11   R125 7
PA: Peach Bottom T2 119   R125 6
PA: Susquehanna R125 13   R125 13
PA: Three Mile Isld R75 6   R125 4
SC: Catawba R125 9   R125 9
SC: Oconee T1 223   R125 12
SC: Robinson R75 4   R75 4
SC: Savannah River R 18   R 18
SC: Summer R125 4   R125 4
TN: Sequoyah R75 7   R125 5
TN: Watts Bar R125 6   R125 6
TX: Comanche Peak R125 13   R125 13
TX: South Texas R125 7   R125 7
VA: North Anna R75 6   R125 3
VA: Surry T1 107   R125 6
VT: Vermont Yankee     T2 64   R75 7
WA: Hanford R 143   R 143
WA: WNP R125 4   R125 4
WI: Kewaunee T1 37   R125 2
WI: Point Beach T1 52   R125 4
           
TOTALS      
Truck   2,925     28
Rail   461     595

Figure 19-4. Year 20 Cask Shipments by Route and Origin
Current Capabilities Transportation Choices/Default Routing


Rail Routes
 Fig19-4a.gif
Highway Routes
 Fig19-4b.gif

Figure 19-5. Year 20 Cask Shipments by Route and Origion
Maximum Rail Transportation Choices/Default Routing


Rail Routes
Fig19-5a.gif
Highway Routes
 Fig19-5b.gif

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